SO MUCH HISTORY!

Bouncing around Geneva and this is what I saw:

**Major lack of photos that have been lost**

**All notes are from study journal that I took around with me to each site**

St. Pierre Cathedral:

  • Swiss reformation church from the 12th century
  • Adopted home church of John Calvin – leader of the reformation
  • The history dates back to the Roman Empire
  • Three of the buildings are from the 8th-10th centuries
  • The present building is devoted to ecclesiastical use and and early Christian funerary cult
  • The other two structures were for public sacraments and church teachings

Vieille Ville – old town Geneva:

  • Middle ages: the bishops of Geneva had status of prince of the Holy Roman Empire since 1154
    • Counts of Geneva ended in 1394
    • The city became part of the Swiss federation in 1526
  • Reformation: home of Calvinism
    • The center of the Protestant Reformation
    • 1532 the Roman Catholic bishop of Geneva was forced to leave and not return
  • 18th century: French Revolution (1789-99)
    • Aristocratic and democratic factions took control of Geneva
    • 1789 France annexed Geneva and its surroundings
  • 19th century: The Great Council of Geneva insisted on taking all papal documents; offered no public aid for Catholicism
  • 20th century:
    • June 30th, 1907 was the separation of church and state
    • League of Nations was established in 1919

Red Cross Museum: It’s an independent volunteer-led organization that is financially supported by public contributions.

  • History:
    • Clara Barton and a small group of acquaintances founded the American Red Cross in 1881
    • The first congressional charter was in 1900 and the next in 1905
      • The charter remains in affect today – The purpose of the organization is to give relief and communication to members of the American armed forces and their families and to provide national and international disaster relief and mitigation
    • Pre-WWI: Water safety and public health nursing programs
    • WWI: There was major growth
      • 1914: 107 local chapters
      • 1918: 3,864 local chapters
      • The membership grew from 17,000 to 20 million (plus 11 million junior Red Cross members)
    • Interwar period: Focused on serving veterans and programs for safety training, accident prevention, home care, and nutritional education; also helped with major disasters such as the Mississippi River floods in 1927 and the drought and depression of the 1930’s
    • WWII:
      • 104,000 + nurses for military service
      • 27,000,000 + packages for the American and Allied POWs
      • 300,000 + tons of supplies sent overseas
      • 13,300,000 million pints of blood collected for the armed forces

Reformation Museum: The European Christian movement that established Protestantism as a constituent branch of contemporary Christianity led by John Calvin and Martin Luther

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  • The “reformers” objected to the doctrines, rituals, and ecclesiastical structure of the Catholic Church
  • Catholics responded with a counter-reformation which reclaimed large parts of Europe (Poland)
  • Northern parts of Europe became protestant while the south remained Catholic.
  • Large new denominations formed – Anglicans (England), Lutherans (Germany and Scandinavia), and reformed churches (Germany, Switzerland, Netherlands, and Scotland)
  • 1517: Luther’s “95 theses” was posted in the Wittenberg Castle church and became the foundation of the Protestant Reformation
    • Debated and criticized the church and the pope, but concentrated on the selling of indulgences and doctrinal policies about purgatory, particular judgment, Catholic devotion to Mary, and the intercession on the devotion of saints and the pope
  • The Treaty of Westphalia ended the European religious wars in 1648

United Nations:

History:

  • November 15, 1920 – first League of Nations meeting; Geneva was the headquarters of the first political international organization
  • Palais des Nations for the League of Nations was created in 1936 – became powerless during WWII
  • June 26, 1945 there was a charter for the UN at a meeting in San Francisco that involved 50 countries and it was ratified October 24, 1945
  • The United Nations is a legacy of the League of Nations
  • There are six official languages which are English, Spanish, French, Russian, Chinese, and Arabic

Random Facts:

  • Cooperation in international law, security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and world peace
  • There are 192 member states
  • The main headquarters is in NYC
  • General Assembly: All of the states are involved and meet annually
  • Security Council: Goal is to maintain peace and security; there are five permanent members – China, France, Russia, USA, and UK; There are 10 non-permanent states that rotate every two years
  • Secretariat: Provides studies and information and facilitates the UN meetings.
  • Secretary General: Spokesperson/leader of the UN – currently is Ban Ki Moon of South Korea (2011)
  • International Court of Justice: Regulating justice system for the UN
  • Economic & Social Council: Assists general assembly in promoting international cooperation and development

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